# Parents and Children

## Overview of a Parent

Using a parent is an alternative method to using a Babylon.js pivot to set the center of transformation for a mesh, that is the point used as the center of rotation or the center of enlargement. To rotate or scale a mesh using a parent as a center of transformation you apply the rotation or scaling vectors to the parent. This is different to using a Babylon.js pivot to rotate or scale a mesh.

Making mesh P a parent of mesh C, the child mesh, changes the frame of reference for mesh C to the local axes of mesh P. Re-positioning, rotating or scaling mesh P will apply the same transformations to mesh C. Positioning, rotation and scaling of mesh C will depend on the position and orientation of the local axes of C relative to those of P.

Please note that none uniform scaling e.g. the scale values on every axes are not the same is not supported on parent nodes. Indeed, the decomposition of such Matrix would result in supporting shear at the transform level which has not been added for performance concerns.

To parent mesh C to mesh P you use any of these three methods

*javascript*

`meshC.parent = meshP; //1meshC.setParent(meshP); //2meshP.addChild(meshC); //3`

The order you set transformations, such as position or rotation, to the parent mesh will affect the result using methods 2 and 3 above.

The following playgrounds show the different behaviors

Transform C and P After Parenting Transform C Before and P After Parenting Transform P Before and C After Parenting Transform C and P Before ParentingTo remove a child, mesh C, from a parent, mesh P you use any of

*javascript*

`meshC.parent = null;meshC.setParent(null);meshP.removeChild(meshC);`

The following playground shows that setting a child's parent mesh P, directly to null, `meshC.parent = null`

, not only removes the parent from the child, mesh C (red), but also removes from mesh C any transformation applied via mesh P leaving only the transformations applied directly to mesh C. Using this method, on the removal of the parent, the position, rotation and scale of mesh C will be seen as changed in the scene view. The other two methods, `meshC.setParent(null)`

and `meshP.removeChild(meshC)`

, just removes the link to the parent and any transformation to mesh C applied via mesh P up to the point of removal will remain. Using these methods, on the removal of the parent, the position, rotation and scale of mesh C will be seen as as the same in the scene view.

## How To Use a Parent

The parent method for these examples can be directly compared to transforming coordinates

## Satellite

Take a box that is rotating and translating from the top of which emerges a smaller box and travels in a direction always perpendicular to the top face of the box.

By parenting the smaller box to the box rotations, positions and scaling given to the parent are also applied to the child. Rotations, positions and scaling given to the child take place inside the frame of reference of the parent.

The following code gives the animation.

*javascript*

`scene.registerAfterRender(function () { box.rotate(BABYLON.Axis.Y, Math.PI / 150, BABYLON.Space.LOCAL); box.rotate(BABYLON.Axis.X, Math.PI / 200, BABYLON.Space.LOCAL); box.translate(new BABYLON.Vector3(-1, -1, -1).normalize(), 0.001, BABYLON.Space.WORLD); y += 0.001; small.translate(BABYLON.Axis.Y, 0.001, BABYLON.Space.LOCAL);});`

## Disc World

Imagine a disc flying around space with building on it. In fact the following example uses a thin cylinder as the disc since the top circular face is horizontal whilst the face of a disc in Babylon.js is vertical. (OK it does make any real difference but it more natural to start with a horizontal ground).

The building will be an array of boxes with each box parented to the disc.

*javascript*

`var phi = 0;scene.registerAfterRender(function () { matrix = disc.getWorldMatrix(); disc.rotate(BABYLON.Axis.Y, Math.PI / 150, BABYLON.Space.LOCAL); disc.rotate(BABYLON.Axis.Z, Math.PI / 200, BABYLON.Space.LOCAL); disc.position = new BABYLON.Vector3(15 * Math.cos(phi), 16 * Math.sin(phi), 5); phi += 0.01;});`

## Negative scaling and local transformation

When parenting a node with negative values for the scaling, some axis might change sign. When computing child local transform, all axis are assumed to be positive. This is the default behavior for legacy reason. It's however possible to keep the scaling axis sign. When calling `addChild`

and `removeChild`

, a second optional boolean parameter will keep sign when set to true. Both function recompute scaling value. So, set parameter to true when add or removing child.