# Ribbons With Math

## Surfaces, Mathematics and Ribbons

Mathematics is very useful for drawing surfaces in 3D space. Surfaces are often described by the following equation type *y = f(x, z)*, that is height of point on the surface is determined by the ground coordinate position below the point

For the moment take z as fixed, say *z = 6*. That means for that value of z *y = g(x)* for some function g.

When x is changing in a linear way it is easy to write a direct equation, such as *y = x²* and to use Babylon.js to draw it path for a range of values of x.

`const path = [];for (let x = -5; x <= 5; x++) { let y = x * x path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, 6))}`

Another way would be to use a separate parameter t, for example, and write *x = t*, and *y = t²*. This might seem a waste of time and extra work.

`const path = [];for (let t = -5; t <= 5; t++) { let x = t; let y = t * t path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, 6))}`

Where it is useful is when the change in x is not linear. Consider a circle or radius 5 for example. The direct equation is *x² + y² = 25*. How do you code that? Using the angle, a, as parameter gives

`const path = [];for (let a = 0; a < 2 * Math.PI; a += Math.PI / 8) { let x = 5 * Math.cos(a); let y = 5 * Math.sin(a); path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, 6))}path.push(path[0]); // close circle`

When it is possible to write the equations using parameters *x = f(t)* and *y = g(t)* it makes coding easier. Assuming the functions f(t) and g(t) have already been coded.

`const path = [];for (let t = -5; t <= 5; t++) { let x = f(t); let y = g(t); path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, 6))}`

Having constructed one path to draw a circle at *z = 6* do the same across a range of *z* values and use the many paths to create a ribbon.

`const paths = [];for (let z = -6; z <= 6; z++) { const path = []; for (let a = 0; a < 2 * Math.PI; a += Math.PI / 8) { let x = 5 * Math.cos(a); let y = 5 * Math.sin(a); path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, z)) } path.push(path[0]); // close circle paths.push(path)}`

Again we can use a parameter for *z*

`const paths = [];for (let t = -6; t <= 6; t++) { const path = []; for (let a = 0; a < 2 * Math.PI; a += Math.PI / 8) { let x = 2 * Math.cos(a); let y = 2 * Math.sin(a); let z = t; path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, z)) } path.push(path[0]); // close circle paths.push(path)}`

Makes a tube: Math-Based Ribbon Tube

We can also use the *z* parameter with *x* and *y*

`const paths = [];for (let t = -6; t <= 6; t++) { const path = []; for (let a = 0; a < 2 * Math.PI; a += Math.PI / 8) { let x = 2 * Math.cos(a) + t / 2; let y = 2 * Math.sin(a) + t * t / 4; let z = t; path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, z)) } path.push(path[0]); // close circle paths.push(path)}`

Makes a U tube: Math-Based Ribbon U-Tube

and surfaces get more interesting if the change in z is not linear

`const paths = [];for (let t = 0; t < Math.PI; t += Math.PI / 32) { const path = []; for (let a = 0; a < 2 * Math.PI; a += Math.PI / 32) { let x = 4 * Math.cos(a) * Math.sin(t); let y = 4 * Math.sin(a) * Math.sin(t); let z = 4 * Math.cos(t); path.push(new BABYLON.Vector3(x, y, z)) } path.push(path[0]); // close circle paths.push(path)}`

a sphere: Math-Based Ribbon Sphere

## More examples

It is hard to stop playing

A ribbon of parabolas: Math-Based Ribbon Parabolas

parabolas scaled: Math-Based Scaled Ribbon Parabolas

parabolas with some trigonometry: Trigonometry-Based Ribbon Parabolas 1

parabolas and more trigonometry: Trigonometry-Based Ribbon Parabolas 2

cuboids with soft edges Cuboids with soft edges

## Paths to Try

You could choose a known math curve from these sites
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_curves

http://www.mathcurve.com/courbes2d/courbes2d.shtml

or others.

When you feel more comfortable, create you own.