features

Realistic Environments


Realistic Environments

An environment is more than just basic shapes, basic textures and basic lighting in a scene. A realistic environment would have a sky, uneven terrain, shadows and perhaps water, fog and different lighting effects. Some of these effects such as adding a sky, uneven ground and fog are handled quite simply and are described in Environment 101. Others require a shader and some are post processes. Some of these are provided for in the Babylon.js engine itself others have to be loaded separately as extensions.

Sky

This can be achieved with a skybox object, a large cube that has its inner faces viewable and covered in a sky texture from six images, one per face.

Uneven Terrain

The most straight forward way is to apply an height map image to the ground object. This greyscale pixels of such an image provide the values for the height of the ground.

HeightMap5

Dynamic Terrain

Do you want a very large, or infinite terrain, then Babylon.js provides an extension to do this using a Dynamic Terrain. The Dynamic Terrain is a mesh and a 3D data map of geographic positions giving planar and height coordinates. The mesh stays in place and morphs according to the current world camera position and a data map. This gives the illusion of being able to fly around the terrain.

Playground Example Early Prototype -


Now a fully developed extension.

Playground Example Around the World -


Remember to click in display area before using keys.

Shadows

For shadows a shadowGenerator object is needed. A mesh can then produce a shadow by adding it to a rendering list of the shadowGenerator. There is also an extension, shadows only, that allows shadows on a transparent mesh.

Fog

Though it can be a complicated procedure to form a fog effect a fairly simple method is described in Environment 101. The effect can be extended further by customising a shader.

Physically Based Rendering Materials

World objects do not all absorb and reflect light in the same way. A metal sculture and a concrete one behave completely differently under the same lights. Physically based rendering materials go a long way to allow you to differentiate between the different substances you might want in your project.

Light Effects

As well as fog, shadows, reflection and reflection it is also possible to give the effects of light scattering and lens flare.

Post Processes

Postprocesses are part of the rendering pipeline that allows you to create 2D effects on top of your scene. A postprocess is linked to a camera and can be part of a chain of postprocesses where each postprocess uses the result of the previous one as input for its own processing.

Shaders

A shader is code written for the GPU and is what finally renders your scene. Babylon.js deals with the shader code for you, all you need to do is to set the camera, material and lighting. However should you wish to do so you can write your own shader to produce the effect you want. You can edit and try out any shader code at http://cyos.babylonjs.com/

A range of shaders including fire, water, lava and fur can be found in the materials library section of Extensions.

Further Reading

Basic - L1

Environment 101
Height Maps 101
Shadows 101
Lights 101
Materials

Mid Level - L2

Introduction to Physically Based Rendering Materials
Skybox
Dynamic Terrain
Dynamic Terrain Examples

More Advanced - L3

Master Physically Based Rendering Materials
Fog using Custom Shader
Shadows Only
Light Scattering
Lens Flare
Reflection and Refraction
Reflection Probes

How to use PostProcesses
How to use PostProcessRenderPipeline
Using the SSAO rendering pipeline
Using the standard rendering pipeline
Using the default rendering pipeline
Using depth-of-field and other lens effects

Introduction to Shaders
How To Put Shader Code in Babylon.js
How To Use ShaderMaterial
Example A Vertical Wave with Shader Code
Example Fireworks with Shader Code